Unexpected movements in the Earth’s magnetic field have attracted the attention of scientists. The core of the planet we live on is made up of liquid metals. This, in turn, causes the earth to work with its North and South Poles like a giant magnet. Both poles are located in places similar to geographical polar points. The magnetic field is actually a “layer”formed by forces around the Earth.
This forced experts working in the field of gravity to update the Earth magnetic model (wmm), a map of magnetic forces. This map is widely used in the military and civilian navigation area, as well as smartphone apps such as Google Maps. “This map was the result of a series of observations made from different parts of the world over five years,” Trindade said. Based on this, a global model was created that shows the changes that occur in time and space. This model is even based on satellite positioning,” he said. The newest version of wmm was released in 2015, and this was projected to remain in effect until 2020. But the speed of changes occurring in the magnetosphere has left scientists with a need to release a new update on January 30. In addition to the change in the pole, another development that made this update necessary was the electromagnetic pulse detected over South America in 2016. These unforeseen changes also increased the amount of error on the current model. According to nature, one of the world’s leading scientific journals, us and British researchers say that the current wmm is lagging beyond almost acceptable levels, which can lead to errors in navigation.
The WMM also plays a vital role in the safety of equipment orbiting the earth. The magnetic field is distributed unevenly in terms of power, and where it is weak, it provides less protection. High-altitude areas, in particular, are becoming more open to solar wind. “Aerial equipment, satellites and telescopes located in such areas are also more likely to be damaged,” Trindade said.
Scientists are still trying to understand the reasons behind these changes. A 2017 study by the University of Leeds found that the movements of the Arctic may be linked to the liquid iron jet stream that occurs above Canada under the Earth’s crust. One of the scientists who signed up to the study was Philip W. Livermore said that while the magnetic field over Siberia retains strength, the field over Canada may be weakening, which in turn “tugging” the pole toward Russia more quickly. In fact, the Earth’s magnetic field is so variable that the North and South Poles have shifted many times since the formation of the earth. The current structure has been standing the same way for the last 700 years, but at any moment it may start to change.