Do you know the different types of people that have emerged and died out over millions of years? Let’s examine our evolutionary history from the past to the present.
More than eight billion people live in our world. Scientists call this species, which we are also in, ”Homo Sapiens” (modern humans), and one of the questions that has tried to be answered so far is the origin of humans. For thousands of years, different explanations have been made about the origins of people (1*).
The first man is believed to have appeared in the East African cradle. Because the oldest remains were found in this area in the excavations and surveys carried out so far. It is also accepted that the first people migrated from here to other regions. From these times, the brains of the first people began to grow and develop. As a result of this situation, the first people also began to develop and change their environment.
It should be noted that the development process of modern humans has not been in a straight line. Because man is a constantly evolving and changing being.
Many different human species have emerged over millions of years. Only a few of them are our ancestors. Over time, other species have disappeared with extinction. Scientists can obtain information about these endangered species from bone remains and some traces they leave (1*).
Researchers call the first creature they consider human ”Homo Habilis” (capable human). The brain size of this species was half that of ours, but Homo habilis could make simple tools out of stone. This species lived in East Africa about two and a half million years ago. At almost the same time, another human species called” Homo Erectus ” (the man who stood up) appeared and was much more developed than the previous species (1*).
Man Standing Up: Homo Erectus
Homo Erectus has lived for more than a million years, and its brain size has almost reached the brain size of today’s human. He could control fire, make hand wedges, build sheds and even hunt large animals such as elephants and rhinos. This human species is the first human species to have these characteristics and migrate to other parts of the world. The fire they could control, the clothes they sewed to protect their bodies, and the sheds they used to shelter, were removed from Africa and spread to other regions, such as Europe and Asia, which were colder. It is likely that the last members of this species died out about 40,000 thousand years ago (4*).
Closest Species To Modern Man: Homo Neanderthal
About 700,000 thousand years ago, a new species began to appear in Africa: The Homo Neanderthal. His brain size was about the same as ours, his body structures were quite bulky and strong. This species is the second species to spread to the world after Homo erectus. They soon settled in Europe and Asia. At that time, there was an ice age, and they most likely settled heavily in Europe. They probably encountered Homo sapiens in the Eastern Mediterranean while advancing from Europe to Western Asia (3*).
Modern Humans: Homo Sapiens
Our species and ancestor, Homo sapiens, originated in Africa about 120,000 years ago. Homo sapiens is the third species to spread around the world and is much more successful than its predecessors. 90,000 years ago, our species lived in the East for a long time and crossed into Europe about 40,000 years ago. He even managed to cross a fairly long road between Asia and Australia and settle there. They also made this long journey with their own canoes, boats and courage (1*).
About 15,000, 30,000 years ago, the first people reached America from Siberia. These people are thought to have followed herds of migrating animals. The Bering Strait, through which they crossed, served as a bridge between continents at that time, and Homo sapiens was the first human species to settle on this new continent. From there, they advanced to the southernmost tip of present-day Chile.
The Touchstone Of Our Civilization: Language
Only people felt the need to name the people around them their beings, their movements, feelings and thoughts. He created a language with these names and communicated with the people he lived with in this way.
It is most likely that initially people needed communication, in the hunting where they came out en masse, or in the group where they were in daily life. Even a language that is very easy to structure has many advantages, such as communicating experiences to someone else, transmitting learned information, spreading culture (1*).
Today, approximately more than 3,000 languages are spoken. Many languages have also disappeared. Despite all the differences, language is a mirror of a people, the environment in which it exists, and the culture.
From hunting and gathering to settled life
Humans had very simple and few tools when they spread around the world. Archaeologists have called this circuit the ”Stone Age” because they have found tools that they have made, especially of stone, during their excavations. Humanity owes its present existence and the point from which it came to 99% to the fact that it has lived this step. This period began two and a half million years ago and ended in central Europe approximately 3300 BC. So about 60,000 generations lived in the Stone Age. However, since then, 180 generations have passed (1*).
At that time, men were climbing into the wild animal net. Hunters hunted the animals with spears or javelins. It is believed that the first bow and arrow was made in 1000 BC. The animals they hunted met their many needs. They used meat and oil as food, fur as clothes and to cover the sheds, their bones for a number of tools; even the animal’s nerves as thread to sew something.
The most important need of people is water, and people have been staying on the shores of a lake or river since early times. Sometimes they followed wild animals and migrated to other areas where there was water. They carried the fruits and vegetables they had collected, and their hunting meat to their abode and consumed them all together.
Beginning Of Agriculture
18,000 years ago, some hunters and collectors saw that the seeds they had stored while collecting began to bloom a year later near where they were staying. They discovered that the resulting plants were actually plants of the seeds they were hiding. They also found that the seed developed better when watered regularly. As a result of this observation, the idea of planting seeds took place in a very short time, and the work of planting seeds began (6*).
This enabled people to move into settled life and establish villages. Thus, large and empty areas were turned into fields, and the soil began to be processed.
Domestication Of Animals
Many generations of people have long struggled to domesticate animals, and this is considered a fairly important cultural achievement. The first domesticated animal is the dog. The dog is a wolf domesticated 14,000 years ago. Initially for humans, Wolves were an easy-to-catch food source. Because they were located very close to the places where people were staying. Over time, some wolves began to obediently follow hunters or even guard where they stayed. In exchange for these duties, they also received food.
Almost all other domestic animals have been domesticated after the transition to settled life. Sheep, goat wool and milk were used. Cats were valuable because they caught creatures such as mice that damaged grain. During the same periods, the all-round field horse was also tamed. The horse was not only used as a cargo animal, but also as a passenger (1*).
Formation Of Cities
In order for a place to be a city, it must bear some positive conditions. The land of the place where the city was founded should be fertile so that farmers can regularly plant grain. Because of this, the most important cities were established between the Nile, Indus, Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The soils of these regions were quite fertile; in addition, the climate was available for crops to be more productive (1*).
In time, the first dams were built by digging simple channels, and irrigation in this form began in cities far from rivers. In this way, the population began to increase. As the population increased, villages began to turn into cities, cities into kingdoms.
The Invention Of Writing
One of humanity’s most meaningful achievements is writing. The article shows that information can only be transmitted in oral form, as well as written and used everywhere. Today, most of the information we have about the past is obtained in this way.
The writing was most likely developed from the caption. In addition, merchants used their goods and money to avoid the confusion that arose when officers collected their taxes (1*).
It is believed that writing in the ancient continents appeared about 7000 thousand years ago, and in the Americas about 2600 years ago. In the 1000’s BC, Sumerians found the writing soon began to be used in many countries. The Greeks and Romans made little change to this form of writing. This article forms the foundations of the alphabet we use today.