This is true for mercury and Venus, too. Although we call it” Planet”, there are significant structural differences between these two planets. At the beginning of these differences are the extremely dense atmosphere of Venus and the extremely thin atmosphere of Mercury. The atmosphere, especially the atmosphere with carbon-based greenhouse gases, envelops planets and traps rays from the sun in the planet’s body. In this way, even if less heat energy is coming, this energy can be used to increase the temperature by keeping it on the surface for longer periods of time.
For this reason, Venus ‘ thick atmosphere can trap heat from the Sun on its surface for much longer periods and much more effectively than Mercury. In this way, it can have a higher surface temperature than Mercury, even if it is farther from The Sun. In contrast, the intense sun’s rays coming to Mercury are scattered into space, easily escaping the thin atmosphere. Mercury is therefore colder than Venus.