According to the theory of Dark Flow, another universe outside the observable universe attracts galaxies in our universe with its enormous mass. This Alien universe pulls and extends the universe in which we live, as if it pinches the cheek, causing clusters of galaxies in space to flow in that direction.
However, galaxies outside the universe move away from us faster than light, because space expands faster than light. Now that gravity is spreading at the speed of light, how can another universe attract us like magnets? So is there more than one universe in the universe, and is the multiverse model correct? Moreover, how can possible universes that move away from us quickly from light affect our observable universe? Let’s see them all in the dark stream.
WHAT IS DARK FLOW AND HOW DO WE MEASURE IT?
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from the Lithuanian-born physicist physicist Alexander Kashlinsky and Spanish Fernando Atrio-Barandela the light from the Big Bang, the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) to a place outside the universe of super galaxy clusters by examining the map of flows, he said. They called it the dark stream, suggesting that what attracted galaxies to it might be another universe. So, do super-galaxy clusters of hundreds of thousands of galaxies flow in a certain direction, just like a stream, into a universe more than 46 billion light years away?
First, the universe is already in motion: according to The Theory of cosmic inflation, space is constantly expanding due to dark energy, and the rate of expansion outside the universe exceeds the speed of light. In addition, galaxies are evenly distributed over space from a distance of 1 billion light years, but there are exceptions: quantum oscillations in the hot Big Bang have led to small changes in the distribution of galaxies.
So much so that in one part of the universe, the number of galaxies is small, while in another part it is a little less. This, in turn, leads to the difference in gravity, causing galaxies to move away from each other as the universe expands, as well as flowing into regions that contain more galaxies. In addition, galaxy clusters flow towards super galaxy clusters, and galaxies also flow towards galaxy clusters.
In short, although the universe expands symmetrically, galaxies can move relative to each other. However, according to two physicists, the universe does not expand symmetrically in the form of a sphere. Instead, it takes the shape of an egg, stretching around one edge like a human being pinched from the cheek. This causes galaxies to fall into the gravity of a point outside the universe. So how can something outside the universe affect us?
DARK FLOW AND SPECIFIC VELOCITY OF GALAXIES
From a distance of about 30 million light-years, all galaxies move away from each other as space expands, and the farther they are, the faster they move away. The reason for this is the expansion of space itself, so we call it the Hubble flow. And the way their galaxies move relative to each other is called the specific velocity. Moreover, the CMB left over from the Big Bang covers the entire universe. We also measure the movement of galaxies relative to each other by referencing the CMB.
So, what do galaxies move according to? It’s moving according to the cosmic microwave background radiation that shows the entire universe. However, according to dark flow theory, the CMS map is also not symmetrical. In space, the Galaxy density is greater at the point corresponding to the upper-right corner of the map. From there, there is a flow into another universe. So how did the researchers measure the direction and speed of this flow on the CMB?
After all, the CMB is not symmetrical, although there is no such thing as dark flow when viewed from Earth. Why: the Milky Way is moving towards the Virgo galaxy cluster and with it the Laniakea super galaxy cluster at a speed of 630 km per second. Laniakea, which contains hundreds of thousands of galaxies and is 520 million light-years wide, is also moving to the Shapley hammer, the center of gravity of the Vela Super Galaxy Cluster. In short, in the universe, it’s like a row of cars chasing each other. So does this affect the CMB?
DARK FLOW AND CMB
It certainly does: the Milky Way’s high-speed travel through space as a member of Laniakea leads to a Doppler shift in the CMB signal. If you say why, the Milky Way is hitting intergalactic clouds of gas and dust (sparse hydrogen nebulae) at high speed in the direction of motion. This, in turn, causes the clouds to heat up and glow by compressing.
The Milky Way encounters more photons left over from the CMB in the direction in which it moves relative to the CMB. Because it goes on top of them, it’s like the CMB light gets stuck in the direction of movement, its frequency increases, the wavelength decreases, and it shifts to blue in accordance with the Doppler effect. And we measure it by looking at what direction and speed our galaxy is going in space. We treat CMB as an absolute frame of reference.
Here, the two physicists also measured the direction and speed of other clusters of super galaxies in the universe on the CMB. So they suggested that there was a dark flow towards another universe. After all, the mass separation of galaxies from each other as a result of the expansion of the universe is a symmetrical movement, and the total speed of galaxies must reset each other across the universe. The movement of galaxies relative to each other makes sense only at distances of less than 1 billion light years. Now let’s simply see how we measure the speed of galaxies:
DARK FLOW AND ASTROPHYSICS 101
Scientists measure the movement of galaxies by Sunyaev-Zeldovic effects. For example kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela Dark Flow measures the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovic effect (KSZ). However, we understand that let’s start with the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovic effect, an astrophysical classic (TSZ). 😊 The light of super galaxy clusters consisting of hundreds of thousands of galaxies is brighter. This means that we can see large clusters from a distance. The quadrillions of stars contained in them overheat gases in space.
As a result, the temperature of the super-sparse gas that surrounds a galaxy cluster like Laniakea can reach 100 million degrees. This creates a super-hot plasma stream. Here’s how important it is: just as the movement of the Milky Way in space strengthens the CMB light a little, other galaxies going through space also strengthen the CMB light from where they are.
By comparing the absolute brightness of the CMB with its visible brightness, we measure which galaxy we are far away from and how quickly they are moving away from us. Not only do we measure the light of galaxies shifting red as they move away from us, but we also measure the small increase in brightness in the light of CMS, comparing the two and getting more precise data about the distance of their galaxies. As a matter of fact, without this increase in brightness, we would not be able to measure the distance of the most distant galaxies, because galaxy light alone would not be enough.
The kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovic (KSZ) effect is more difficult to measure: KSZ shows the movement of galaxies not relative to the universe, but relative to other galaxies. It leads to a blue shift in Galaxy light, and we remove it from a red shift that depends on that galaxy moving away from us. Add a few more parameters that don’t need to be explained here and measure the direction and speed in which the galaxy is moving compared to other galaxies (for example, is it moving away from us at a 45-degree angle, how fast it is approaching another galaxy).
WHY ALL THE DETAILS?
Measuring the depth of the most distant galaxies in the universe is very, very difficult. From a distance, one of the two galaxies that stand side by side could be 1 billion light years behind the other. It can be misleading to look at the most distant galaxies without taking into account ksz and say that another universe attracts them and they flow there like streams. Kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela measured the velocity (specific velocity) of the 700 super-galaxy clusters relative to each other on the CMS map by KSZ and concluded that there was dark flow. And all hell broke loose:
DARK FLOW DIVIDED PHYSICISTS
In his writings on the actual physics of the Big Bang and the cosmological crisis, I said that the theory of cosmic inflation largely explains how the universe was formed by the Big Bang. And for that, the universe has to be symmetrical. However, if you say that the gravity of another universe has stretched and distorted the universe in which we are (see gravity). distorted universe) you subvert modern cosmology. If that’s the truth, let it collapse, but many scientists were skeptical of the dark stream until they found conclusive evidence.
To illustrate how science works, Kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela derived the dark flow theory from data from the Wilkinson Microwave extinction probe (WMAP), an ancient space telescope that mapped the CMS. He also measured the speed at which galaxies flow into another universe at 1000 km/second. It is a huge claim to suggest that 700 clusters of Super-Galaxies, consisting of 100 thousand galaxies, each containing 400 billion stars, are heading towards another universe at 1000 km per second.
The dark direction of flow was shown as a 20-angle-second region in the sky between the constellations Centaurus and Vela. However, data from the Planck Space Telescope, which released the most up-to-date version of the CMS map in 2013, began to arrive. Universalists have also shown that there is no dark flow in this more detailed map. They said Kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela incorrectly measured speeds on the map.
However, the two physicists suggested in a new paper they published in 2015 that they also saw the dark stream on the Planck map. In addition, astrophysicist Ned Wright noted that statistical errors were made in the measurements, and incorrect criteria were taken when comparing the speed of galaxies relative to each other. Kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela also refuted five of the 7 articles that Wright objected to, and cited the remaining two as irrelevant to the issue. Ryan Keisler, on the other hand, said that they do not consider the primary aspects of the universe. Well, what does this mean?
It’s not as technical as it sounds: I said at the beginning of my article that random quantum oscillations after the Big Bang prevent matter from being distributed exactly evenly across the universe on large scales. As a matter of fact, there are regions in the universe where the average number of galaxies is a little more or less. Keisler also says that Kashlinsky and Atrio-Barandela fabricated the dark stream because they measured Galaxy speeds without taking them into account. Today, the general acceptance in scientific circles is that there is no dark flow. How can something outside the universe attract us? There’s an answer to that.:
OTHER UNIVERSES AND DARK FLOW
After the hot Big Bang, the universe briefly swelled faster than light. For this reason, a megaevren has been formed, and our universe is also part of the megaevren. Other universes are regions that have moved away from us as megaevren swells fast from light and remain outside our universe today. But before it swelled, these universes were our next-door neighbors. Already the megaevren was microscopic in size at the time. So if there’s a cosmic flow, it’s because of the gravitational remnant of the universes that used to be our neighbors.
Today, other universes are too far away to affect us, but they used to be very close, and gravity had contested their nuclei before galaxies were formed. And today, clusters of Super Galaxies derived from these cores are moving away from us fast from light, flowing in the direction of this universe under the influence of the gravity of a universe that they will never be able to catch up with 13.78 billion years ago.
So yes, it’s a theory that the Dark Flow is very ambitious and probably not real, but at the same time saying that there is more than one universe in the universe, the multiverse theory to prove one of two ways: 1 if the multiverse exists) in the next 40 years by looking for gravitational waves from the Big Bang, the universe we live in, we can see the oldest traces of other universes and 2) The Dark Flow, we can trace the old universe. It’s exciting to think that we can trace another universe, even if we dream.